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Table 3 Obstetric and neonatal outcomes among women with and without psychosis during delivery hospitalizations (N=23,507,597)

From: Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes complicated by psychosis among pregnant women in the United States

Obstetric and neonatal outcomes Women OR (95% CI)
With psychosis (N = 164,261) Without psychosis (N = 23,343,336) Unadjusted Adjusteda Adjustedb
n % n %
Death during hospitalizations 19 0.01 1,468 0.01 1.82 (0.67, 4.92) 1.31 (0.42, 4.14) 1.00 (0.30, 3.31)
Cesarean delivery 62,496 38.05 7,718,434 33.06 1.24 (1.21, 1.28) 1.31 (1.28, 1.35) 1.26 (1.23, 1.29)
Length of stay, mean (SE), day      
Vaginal birth 3.08 (0.10) 2.53 (0.01) NA NA NA
Cesarean delivery 4.29 (0.07) 3.55 (0.02) NA NA NA
Length of stay >6 day        
Vaginal birth 243 0.15 9,526 0.04 4.12 (3.02, 5.63) 4.03 (2.94, 5.52) 3.19 (2.56, 4.50)
Cesarean delivery 4,800 2.92 245,416 1.05 2.53 (2.35, 2.74) 2.46 (2.27, 2.66) 2.14 (1.98, 2.32)
Induction of labor 32,876 20.01 4,247,666 18.20 1.13 (1.09, 1.17) 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) 1.05 (1.02, 1.09)
Antepartum hemorrhage 4,138 2.52 356,821 1.53 1.67 (1.55, 1.79) 1.67 (1.55, 1.79) 1.22 (1.14, 1.31)
 Placental abruption 3,127 1.90 246,768 1.06 1.82 (1.68, 1.97) 1.75 (1.62, 1.90) 1.22 (1.13, 1.32)
Postpartum hemorrhage 5,460 3.32 654,043 2.80 1.19 (1.11, 1.28) 1.22 (1.13, 1.31) 1.18 (1.10, 1.27)
Spontaneous delivery <37-week gestation 20,059 12.21 1,692,651 7.25 1.78 (1.71, 1.85) 1.75 (1.68, 1.82) 1.40 (1.36, 1.46)
Stillbirth 1,811 1.10 153,045 0.66 1.69 (1.52, 1.88) 1.64 (1.47, 1.82) 1.37 (1.23, 1.53)
Premature rupture of membranes 8,318 5.06 904,679 3.88 1.32 (1.25, 1.40) 1.31 (1.24, 1.39) 1.22 (1.15, 1.29)
Excessive fetal growth 3,807 2.32 609,142 2.61 0.89 (0.82, 0.96) 0.91 (0.85, 0.98) 1.06 (0.98, 1.14)
Poor fetal growth 6,668 4.06 507,269 2.17 1.91 (1.79, 2.03) 1.75 (1.65, 1.86) 1.26 (1.19, 1.34)
Fetal distress 28,282 17.22 3,342,430 14.32 1.25 (1.20, 1.29) 1.21 (1.17, 1.26) 1.14 (1.10, 1.18)
Fetal abnormalities 4,380 2.67 337,978 1.45 1.87 (1.73, 2.01) 1.83 (1.70, 1.97) 1.49 (1.38, 1.61)
  1. Abbreviations: SE standard error, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age (continuous), race, median household income quartiles, hospital location, hospital region, and year
  3. bFurther adjusted for ever smoking, alcohol/substance abuse, and pregnancy-related hypertension