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Table 4 Obstetric and neonatal outcomes among women with and without schizophrenia during delivery hospitalizations (N=23,357,461)

From: Adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes complicated by psychosis among pregnant women in the United States

Obstetric and neonatal outcomes Women OR (95% CI)
With schizophrenia (N = 14,125) Without psychosis (N = 23,343,336) Unadjusted Adjusteda Adjustedb
n % n %
Death during hospitalizations ≤10 c 0.04 1,468 0.01 5.15 (0.73, 36.61) 3.21 (0.45, 23.11) 2.23 (0.30, 16.80)
Cesarean delivery 5,544 39.25 7,718,434 33.06 1.31 (1.22, 1.41) 1.22 (1.13, 1.31) 1.16 (1.08, 1.25)
Length of stay, mean (SE), day
 Vaginal birth 3.55 (0.48) 2.53 (0.01) NA NA NA
 Cesarean delivery 4.66 (0.19) 3.55 (0.02) NA NA NA
Length of stay >6 day
 Vaginal birth 25 0.18 9,526 0.04 4.73 (1.93, 11.59) 3.86 (1.58, 9.41) 3.01 (1.11, 8.13)
 Cesarean delivery 547 3.87 245,416 1.05 3.34 (2.70, 4.12) 2.71 (2.19, 3.36) 2.33 (1.86, 2.93)
Induction of labor 2,444 17.30 4,247,666 18.20 0.93 (0.85, 1.03) 0.97 (0.88, 1.07) 0.98 (0.89, 1.09)
Antepartum hemorrhage 422 2.99 356,821 1.53 1.98 (1.61, 2.44) 1.74 (1.41, 2.15) 1.18 (0.96, 1.46)
 Placental abruption 355 2.51 246,768 1.06 2.43 (1.93, 3.04) 2.08 (1.66, 2.62) 1.34 (1.06, 1.68)
Postpartum hemorrhage 446 3.16 654,043 2.80 1.14 (0.93, 1.39) 1.13 (0.93, 1.39) 1.09 (0.89, 1.34)
Spontaneous delivery <37-week gestation 2,022 14.32 1,692,651 7.25 2.14 (1.92, 2.39) 1.85 (1.65, 2.06) 1.42 (1.26, 1.59)
Stillbirth 192 1.36 153,045 0.66 2.09 (1.54, 2.83) 1.62 (1.19, 2.19) 1.28 (0.94, 1.74)
Premature rupture of membranes 803 5.68 904,679 3.88 1.50 (1.28, 1.76) 1.44 (1.24, 1.69) 1.31 (1.12, 1.53)
Excessive fetal growth 237 1.68 609,142 2.61 0.64 (0.49, 0.84) 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) 0.87 (0.66, 1.14)
Poor fetal growth 560 3.96 507,269 2.17 1.86 (1.54, 2.24) 1.61 (1.33, 1.94) 1.10 (0.91, 1.33)
Fetal distress 2,590 18.34 3,342,430 14.32 1.34 (1.22, 1.49) 1.22 (1.11, 1.35) 1.13 (1.03, 1.25)
Fetal abnormalities 373 2.64 337,978 1.45 1.85 (1.50, 2.28) 1.75 (1.41, 2.16) 1.34 (1.08, 1.66)
  1. Abbreviations: SE standard error, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age (continuous), race, median household income quartiles, hospital location, hospital region, and year
  3. bFurther adjusted for ever smoking, alcohol/substance abuse, and pregnancy-related hypertension
  4. cHCUP privacy protection requirements do not allow the reporting of data where there are less than or equal to 10 individual records in a given cell