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Table 2 Perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, numbers at inclusion (n = 589) and at the end of the intervention (n = 509)

From: How does a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy influence perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity? The Norwegian fit for delivery study, a randomized controlled trial

Barriers Gestational week 16.1 ± 2.4 P-value Gestational week 35.4 ± 1.0 P-value
  n (%) % (95% CIa)   n (%) % (95% CIa)  
  Intervention (n = 295) Control (n = 294) Group difference   Intervention (n = 255) Control (n = 254) Group difference  
Intrapersonal
Health related
... problems with mobility 5 (1.7) 5 (1.7) 0.0 (−2.4 to 2.4) 1.0 73 (24.7) 90 (30.6) 6.6 (−1.5 to 14.5) 0.119
... afraid to get hurt/injured 3 (1.0) 1 (0.3) 0.7 (−1.2 to 2.6) 0.624 17 (5.8) 13 (4.4) 1.5 (−2.7 to 5.9) 0.454
... physical health/medical causes 10 (3.4) 11 (3.7) 0.4 (−2.8 to 3.5) 0.824 33 (11.2) 36 (12.2) 1.1 (−4.9 to 7.1) 0.701
... due to nausea 2 (0.7) 1 (0.3) 0.3 (−1.2 to 2.1) 1.0 15 (5.1) 21 (7.1) 2.3 (−2.2 to 7.0) 0.302
... fear of urinary incontinence 0 (0.0) 1 (0.3) 0.3 (−0.9 to 1.8) 1.0 6 (2.0) 4 (1.4) 0.7 (−1.9 to 3.6) 0.752
...pelvic girdle pain 24 (8.1) 28 (9.5) 0,9 (−3.7 to 5.7) 0.562 90 (30.5) 93 (31.6) 1.0 (−7.3 to 9.3) 0.791
Not health related
... insufficient time 119 (40.3) 122 (41.5) 0.8 (−7.0 to 8.7) 0.803 22 (8.6) 38 (14.9) 6.3 (0.1 to 12.1) 0.030
... negative experiences 15 (5.1) 12 (4.1) 1.0 (−2.5 to 4.5) 0.555 6 (2.0) 3 (1.0) 1.2 (−1.4 to 4.0) 0.505
... I do not believe I can do it 14 (4.7) 10 (3.4) 1.3 (−1.9 to 4.7) 0.405 3 (1.0) 10 (3.4) 2.7 (−0.1 to 6.0) 0.050
... I do not have the energy 102 (34.6) 102 (34.7) 0.1 (−7.5 to 7.8) 1.0 104 (35.3) 91 (31.0) 5.0 (−3.5 to 13.3) 0.258
...lack of interest 80 (27.1) 97 (33.0) 5.8 (−1.5 to 13.1) 0.129 17 (5.8) 27 (9.2) 3.9 (−1.1 to 8.9) 0.117
... I am afraid to go out 9 (3.1) 9 (3.1) 0.0 (−3.0 to 3.0) 1.0 3 (1.0) 1 (0.3) 0.7 (−1.2 to 3.0) 0.624
... afraid to harm to the baby 71 (24.1) 72 (24.5) 0.4 (−6.4 to 7.3) 0.924 8 (2.7) 25 (8.5) 6.7 (2.4 to 11.2) 0.002
Interpersonal
... lack of exercise companion 57 (19.3) 41 (13.9) 5.4 (−0.5 to 11.5) 0.078 13 (4.4) 16 (5.4) 1.2 (−3.0 to 5.4) 0.568
Environmental
... transportation problems 12 (4.1) 11 (3.7) 0.3 (−2.9 to 3.7) 0.832 9 (3.1) 3 (1.0) 2.4 (−0.4 to 5.5) 0.142
... the scheduled time doesn’t fit me 21 (7.1) 30 (10.2) 3.1 (−1.5 to 7.8) 0.188 6 (2.0) 4 (1.4) 0.8 (−1.9 to 3.6) 0.752
... lack of exercise options 2 (0.7) 4 (1.4) 0.7 (−1.3 to 2.8) 0.686 2 (0.7) 6 (2.0) 1.6 (−0.8 to 4.3) 0.286
... lack of activities that interests me 21 (7.1) 14 (4.8) 2.4 (−1.5 to 6.4) 0.223 7 (2.4) 7 (2.4) 0.0 (−3.4 to 3.2) 1.0
Policy ... I cannot afford it 28 (9.5) 27 (9.2) 0.3 (−4.4 to 5.2) 0.888 2 (0.7) 3 (1.0) 0.4 (−1.8 to 2.7) 1.0
Other reason 66 (22.4) 55 (18.7) 3.8 (−2.7 to 10.3) 0.264 54 (18.3) 52 (17.7) 0.9 (−6.2 to 7.9) 0.831
  1. aCI; Confidence Interval