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Table 4 Bivariate distribution of selected birth companionship variables by demographic and facility characteristics, PQCC Study 2016

From: Companionship during facility-based childbirth: results from a mixed-methods study with recently delivered women and providers in Kenya

  Accompanied to facility Allowed continuous support during
Labor Delivery
No. % No. % No. %
Age
 15 to 19 years 156 96.3** 118 72.8 58 35.8
 20 to 29 years 442 86.5 352 69.2 153 29.9
 30 to 48 years 172 84.3 130 63.7 56 27.5
Marital Status
 Not married 172 90.5 137 72.1 69 36.3*
 Currently married 598 87 463 67.6 198 28.8
Number of births
 1.0 274 94.5*** 216 74.5** 102 35.2
 2.0 163 88.1 134 73.2 51 27.6
 3.0 137 84 103 63.2 53 32.5
 4 or more 196 82 147 61.5 61 25.5
Education
 No school/Primary 425 85.9 323 65.4* 132 26.7*
 Post-primary/vocational/Secondary 246 90.8 189 70 99 36.5
 College or above 99 89.2 88 79.3 36 32.4
Literacy
 No, cannot write 28 90.3 13 41.9*** 7 22.6***
 Yes, but with some difficulty 122 86.5 84 59.6 20 14.2
 Yes, Very well 620 87.9 503 71.6 240 34
Household wealth
 Poorest/poorer 332 87.4 236 62.3** 105 27.6*
 Middle 122 90.4 93 68.9 37 27.4
 Richer/richest 316 87.3 271 75.1 125 34.5
Employed
 No 576 87.5 427 65.1*** 198 30.1
 Yes 194 88.6 173 79 69 31.5
Pregnancy complication
 No 431 87.2 349 70.8 168 34**
 Yes 339 88.5 251 65.7 99 25.8
Birth Complication
 No 633 87.8 515 71.6*** 242 33.6***
 Yes 137 87.8 85 54.5 25 16
Past health facility delivery
 No 315 92.1** 242 70.8 117 34.2
 Yes 455 85 358 67.2 150 28
ANC visits
 Less than 4 240 83.6** 200 69.7 92 32.1
 4 plus 526 89.9 396 67.8 173 29.6
Tribe
 Luo 496 84.9*** 426 73.1*** 189 32.4
 Kuria 200 96.2 117 56.5 53 25.5
 Other 74 87.1 57 67.1 25 29.4
Religion
 Catholic 215 88.8 175 72.6 68 28.1
 Protestant/Pentecostal 165 86.4 122 63.9 53 27.7
 Seventh Day Adventist 236 89.7 182 69.5 94 35.7
 Other Christian 142 85.5 112 67.5 46 27.7
 Muslim/other religion 12 80 9 60 6 40
Delivery facility type
 Gov’t Hospital 369 91.3** 257 63.9** 115 28.5
 Gov’t Health Center 303 83.7 273 75.4 114 31.5
 Mission/Private facility 98 88.3 70 63.1 38 34.2
Delivery provider
 Nurse/Midwife 578 88.1 462 70.6** 209 31.9
 Doctor/Clinical Officer 119 86.9 89 65 40 29.2
 Non-skilled attendant 17 81 17 81 8 38.1
 1plus skilled providers 56 88.9 32 50.8 10 15.9
Delivery Provider sex
 Male 294 89.4 206 62.6* 82 24.9*
 Female 445 86.6 370 72.3 173 33.7
 Both 31 91.2 24 70.6 12 35.3
Accompanied by
 Partner
  No    434 69.7 208 33.3**
  Yes    166 65.9 59 23.3
 Mother-in-law
  No    442 70 186 29.4
  Yes    158 64.8 81 33.1
 Mother
  No    525 67.9 231 29.8
  Yes    75 73.5 36 35.3
 Sister/Sister in law
  No    465 65.7*** 223 31.4
  Yes    135 80.8 44 26.3
 Friend/Neighbor
  No    519 68.2 238 31.2
  Yes    81 71.1 29 25.4
 Facility crowded
  No or a few times    425 72.2** 172 29.1
  Most or all the time    173 60.9 94 33.1
 Desired labor companion
  No    68 47.9***   
  Yes    459 73.9   
  Don’t know    3 60   
 Desired delivery companion
  No      92 18.8***
  Yes      135 49.6
  Don’t know      4 50
Total 770 87.8 600 68.6 267 30.4
  1. * p < 0.05 ** p < 0.01 *** p < 0.001