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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants and their pregnancy outcomes

From: The treatment of booking gestational diabetes mellitus (TOBOGM) pilot randomised controlled trial

  Referred to clinic (Rx) Not referred to clinic (NoRx) Decoys Sig GDM vs Decoyb Sig referred to clinic vs not referred to clinic at Bookingc
N Baseline/ Outcomes 11/11 10/9 a 58/56   
Age 29(5) 30(7) 28(5) 0.181 0.746
Non Europid 4 (36.4%) 5(50%) 30(51.7%) 0.486 0.528
University degree 2 (18.2%) 1(10%) 11(19%) 0.630 0.593
Family History of Diabetes 4 (36.4%) 3(30%) 25(43.1%) 0.435 0.757
Smoker 0 (0%) 2(20%) 9(15.5%) 0.497 0.119
Gestation on entry (weeks) 17.0(2.1) 15.7(3.1) 15.3(2.5) 0.114 0.277
Gestation at OGTT (weeks) 18.5(1.2) 17.5(1.8) 17.5(2.0) 0.307 0.173
Systolic BP(mmHg) 111(11) 101(8) 106(12) 0.857 0.029
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 64(7) 63(9) 64(9) 0.837 0.693
Height (cm) 164(6) 164(8) 163(8) 0.790 0.948
Weight (kg) 87.2(23.7) 89.9(26.4) 77.8(20.9) 0.057 0.807
BMI (kg/m2) 32.3 (7.8) 33(7.0) 28.9(6.6) 0.034 0.824
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 5.1(0.4) 5.2(0.3) 4.6(0.3) < 0.001 0.464
1 h glucose (mmol/L) 8.0(1.7) (n = 10) 8.4(1.6) 6.7(1.4) < 0.001 0.602
2 h glucose (mmol/L) 7.0(1.9) (n = 10) 6.8(1.7) 5.6(1.2) 0.001 0.790
Maternal Fasting Insulin (pmol/L) 118.2 122.4 (n = 9) 59.8 (n = 53) < 0.001 0.910
Maternal Fasting Cpeptide (pmol/L) 426.5 686.9 (n = 9) 412.1 (n = 53) 0.190 0.379
Maternal Fasting Adiponectin(μg/mL) 7.2(2.4) 9.5(2.9) (n = 9) 12.1(7.5) (n = 53) 0.028 0.071
Maternal Fasting Triglyceride(mmol/L) 1.8(0.6) 1.9(0.5) (n = 9) 1.7(0.7) (n = 51) 0.370 0.748
Maternal Fasting Leptin(ng/mL) 57.6(30.0) 69.4(25.0) (n = 9) 46.1(25.4) (n = 53) 0.016 0.360
Maternal Fasting 3 BHB(μmol/L) 96.9 98.3 (n = 9) 64.0 (n = 53) 0.002 0.950
GDM at 24–28/40 8/9 a(89%) 11/56(19.6%)   
Insulin and/or metformin 4/11 (36%) 4/10(40%) 3/11(27.3%) 0.443 0.864
Gestation at birth (weeks) 38.7(1.4) 39.2(0.6) 38.5(2.2) 0.440 0.326
Gestational weight gain 5.3(3.7) 8.1(2.5) 10.4(5.3) 0.001 0.074
Pre-eclampsia/pregnancy induced hypertension 3(27%) 0(0%) 6(10.7%) 0.664 0.089
Male baby 6(55%) 6(67%) 22(39%) 0.160 0.582
Induction of labour 7(64%) 3(33%) 9(16%) 0.001 0.178
Emergency CS Elective CS 4(36%) 1(9%) 1(11%) 2(22%) 7(13%) 14(25%) 0.236 0.313 0.194 0.413
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admission 4(36%) 0(0%) 8(14.3%) 0.608 0.043
Heelprick Blood glucose (mmol/l) 3.0(0.7) (n = 9) 3.3(0.8) (n = 8) 3.1(1.0) (n = 46) 0.995 0.515
Neonatal Glucose % ≤ 2.2 mmol/l 1/9 (11%) 1/8(13%) 6/46(13%) 0.834 0.929
Weight of baby (g) 3055(758) 3552(743) 3339(682) 0.873 0.159
Average Centile 46(39) 57(35) 56(34) 0.801 0.531
<10th Centile 3(27%) 0(0%) 5(8.9%) 0.493 0.089
>90th Centile 0 3(33%) 14(25%) 0.583 0.030
  1. aOne woman withdrew and was referred for treatment: she consented to data being collected and is included in the GDM vs Decoy comparison but not the Referred vs Not Referred comparison
  2. bSig GDM vs Decoy = significance of difference between all women with and without GDM at booking
  3. cSig referred to clinic vs not referred to clinic at Booking = significance of difference between women with GDM at booking who were or were not referred to clinic
  4. Mean APGAR 1 min and 5 min =9(1); Not referred: one shoulder dystocia
  5. Statistically significant comparisons shown in italics