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Table 1 Maternal characteristics of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus

From: Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed according to the WHO-2013 and WHO-1999 diagnostic criteria: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

  Cohort
Characteristics WHO-2013 WHO-1999 P-value*
N 437 949  
Age (years) 34.7 ± 5.1 32.1 ± 5.1 < 0.001
Ethnicity, n (%)    < 0.001
  Caucasian 357 (81.7) 741 (78.1)  
  Asian 9 (2.1) 72 (7.6)  
  African-American 2 (0.5) 39 (4.1)  
  Mediterranean 64 (14.6) 69 (7.3)  
  Unknown 5 (1.1) 28 (3.0)  
Parity, n (%)    0.232
  0 158 (36.2) 386 (40.7)  
  1–2 242 (55.5) 499 (52.6)  
   > 2 36 (8.3) 64 (6.7)  
First degree relative with DM, n (%) 82 (18.8) 376 (41.1) < 0.001
History of PCOS, n (%) 10 (2.3) 50 (5.3) 0.011
History of GDM, n (%) 44 (10.1) 103 (10.9) 0.650
Previous infant weighing ≥4500 g at birth, n (%) 42 (9.6) 97 (10.2) 0.716
History of IUFD, n (%) 4 (0.9) 20 (2.1) 0.113
Pre-gestational BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 [26.0–34.4] 27.7 [24.2–31.8] < 0.001
Pre-gestational BMI, n (%)    < 0.001
   < 25 kg/m2 88 (20.8) 291 (31.5)  
  25–29.9 kg/m2 129 (30.4) 288 (31.2)  
   ≥ 30 kg/m2 207 (48.8) 344 (37.3)  
Chronic hypertension, n (%) 8 (1.8) 43 (4.5) 0.013
Indication for OGTT, n (%)    < 0.001
  Screening based on risk factors 362 (82.8) 650 (68.5)  
  Diagnostic test based on symptoms/signs 66 (15.1) 270 (28.5)  
  Unknown 9 (2.1) 29 (3.1)  
Diagnosis based on OGTT, n (%) 422 (96.6) 919 (96.8) 0.791
Gestational age at time of OGTT (weeks) 24.9 [23.3–29.0] 27.7 [25.9–30.7] < 0.001
Gestational age at time of OGTT screening only (weeks) 24.4 [22.6–26.9] 27.3 [25.1–28.7] < 0.001
Gestational age at time of OGTT diagnostic 3rd trimester only (weeks) 33.1 [28.7–35.3] 30.4 [27.7–33.6] 0.001
75-g OGTT    
  Fasting glucose level (mmol/l) 5.3 [5.1–5.6] 5.0 [4.6–5.5] < 0.001
  1-h glucose level (mmol/l) 9.6 [8.0–10.5] NA
  2-h glucose level (mmol/l) 7.7 [6.6–9.0] 8.6 [8.1–9.4] < 0.001
  Diagnosis based on elevated fasting glucose level only, n (%) 170 (40.2) 8 (0.9) < 0.001
  Diagnosis based on elevated 2-h glucose level only, n (%) 46 (10.9) 877 (95.4) < 0.001
Insulin treatment, n (%) 68 (15.6) 412 (43.4) < 0.001
Metformin treatment, n (%) 14 (3.2) NA
  1. Abbreviations: WHO World health Organization, BMI body mass index, DM diabetes mellitus, IUFD intrauterine foetal death, PCOS polycystic ovary syndrome, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, NA not applicable. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median [IQR], or proportion of n (%)
  2. *P-values were based on Student’s unpaired t-test (non-skewed continuous variables), Mann-Whitney U-Test (skewed continuous variables) or chi-square test (categorical variables)
  3. Total number of women diagnosed with a 75-g OGTT. The other women (n = 45) were diagnosed with a random or fasting glucose level in first trimester of their pregnancy. Data with respect to first degree relative with DM 35 (3.7%) (WHO-1999-cohort), BMI 13 (3.0%) (WHO-2013-cohort) and 26 (2.7%) (WHO-1999-cohort), gestational age at time of OGTT 15 (1.6%) (WHO-1999-cohort), are missing