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Table 3 Neonatal outcomes of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus

From: Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosed according to the WHO-2013 and WHO-1999 diagnostic criteria: a multicentre retrospective cohort study

  Cohort   
Outcome variable WHO-2013 WHO-1999 P-value* OR** Adjusted OR**
N 437 949    
Preterm delivery, n (%) 27 (6.2) 60 (6.3) 0.934 0.98 (0.61–1.57) NA
Birth weight (g) 3512 ± 459 3399 ± 532 < 0.001 NA NA
Birth weight, n (%)    0.136 NA NA
 Infants < 4000 g 384 (87.9) 831 (87.8)    
 Infants 4000–4499 g 42 (9.6) 104 (11.0)    
 Infants ≥4500 g 11 (2.5) 11 (1.2)    
Large for gestational age, n (%) 72 (16.5) 176 (18.5) 0.379 0.87 (0.65–1.18) 0.90 (0.66–1.25)
Small for gestational age, n (%) 14 (3.2) 37 (3.9) 0.538 0.82 (0.44–1.54) NA
5 min Apgar < 7, n (%) 7 (1.6) 32 (3.4) 0.068 0.47 (0.21–1.08) NA
Respiratory support, n (%) 14 (3.2) 37 (3.9) 0.519 0.81 (0.44–1.52) NA
Birth trauma, n (%) 15 (3.4) 30 (3.2) 0.791 1.09 (0.58–2.05) NA
Hypoglycaemia, n (%) 42 (9.6) 40 (4.2) < 0.001 2.41 (1.54–3.78) 2.48 (1.52–4.05)
Hyperbilirubinaemia, n (%) 4 (0.9) 24 (2.5) 0.062 0.36 (0.12–1.03) NA
Still birth/neonatal death, n (%) 1 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 1.000 NA NA
Admission to the neonatology department, n (%) 54 (12.4) 139 (14.6) 0.272 0.83 (0.59–1.16) 0.79 (0.55–1.14)
  1. Abbreviations: WHO World health Organization, OR odds ratios, NA not applicable. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, or proportion of n (%)
  2. *P-values were based on Student’s unpaired t-test (non-skewed continuous variables), or chi-square test (categorical variables)
  3. **OR, 95% confidence intervals were derived from logistic regression models using the WHO-1999 group as reference group. Multivariable adjustment included maternal age, pre-gestational body mass index, ethnicity and parity. Large for gestational age was adjusted for maternal age and pre-gestational body mass index. Only for the variables with sufficient statistical power multivariable adjustment was performed. When the statistical power was not sufficient or the outcome variable was continuous ‘NA’ was reported
  4. Corrected for sex, ethnicity, parity, and gestational age