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Table 2 Rates of early initiation of breastfeeding in Namibia (2000, 2006–2007 and 2013) by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics

From: Trends and factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding in Namibia: analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys 2000–2013

Characteristics 2000 2006–2007 2013 Percentage difference
% 95% CI p-valuea % 95% CI p-valuea % 95% CI p-valuea 2000–2006b 2006–2013b 2000–2013b
Age, years
 15–19 8.9 7.2–10.8   7.9 6.7–9.4   9.1 7.7–10.6   −1 1.2 0.2
 20–34 58.2 54.4–61.9 0.143 53.1 50.4–55.8 0.057 52.7 50.0–55.3 0.160 −5.1 −0.4 −5.5
 35–49 15.4 13.3–17.8   11.7 10.1–13.6   13.2 11.4–15.2   −3.7 1.5 −2.2
Residence
 Rural 27.6 23.8–31.7 0.210 27.7 24.8–30.7 0.856 34.9 32.3–37.4 0.579 0.1 7.2* 7.3**
 Urban 54.8 50.9–58.7   45.1 42.5–47.8   40.1 37.4–42.8   −9.7 −5 −14.7**
Marital status
 Never married 35.8 32.3–39.4   33.2 30.5–35.9   37.1 34.4–39.7   −2.6 3.9 1.3
 Married/cohabiting 42.2 38.6–45.9 0.322 36 33.3–38.8 0.497 35.1 32.5–37.8 0.021 −6.2 −0.9 −7.1
 Divorced/separated/widow 4.4 3.4–5.8   3.6 2.7–4.7   2.8 2.0–3.8   −0.8 −0.8 −1.6
Education
 No formal 11.5 8.9–14.6   7.8 6.5–9.4   4.2 3.3–5.4   −3.7 −3.6** −7.3**
 Primary 29.1 25.6–32.8 0.805 21.3 19.4–23.5 0.542 17.3 15.3–19.4 0.071 −7.8** −4 −11.8**
 Secondary 39.9 36.4–43.4   40.6 37.8–43.4   50.0 47.1–53.0   0.7 9.4 10.1**
 Tertiary 2.0 1.2–3.3   3.0 2.0–4.5   3.4 2.4–4.9   1 0.4 1.4
Occupation
 Not working 54.3 50.7–57.8   36.6 33.9–39.4   44.2 41.4–47.1   −12.8** 1.7 −11.1**
 Agriculture 5.2 3.3–7.9 0.114 9.4 7.8–11.1 0.933 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.023 3.3 0.3 3.6
 Paid work 23.0 20.2–26.0   27.0 24.1–30.0   29.6 27.3–32.0   3.3 0.3 3.6
Wealth, quintiles
 Poorest 19.9 17.1–23.1   15.1 13.1–17.2   15.7 13.7–18.0   −4.8 0.6 −4.2
 Poorer 19.0 16.2–22.2   15.9 13.9–18.1   15.8 13.7–18.1   −3.1 −0.1 −3.2
 Average 16.0 13.1–19.5 0.378 13.5 11.6–15.7 0.624 15.0 12.9–17.2 0.198 −2.5 1.5 − 1
 Richer 13.8 11.2–16.8   14.5 12.7–16.6   14.2 12.3–16.4   0.7 −0.3 0.4
 Richest 13.8 11.1–17.0   13.9 12.2–15.8   14.3 12.3–16.6   0.1 0.4 0.5
ANC attendance, visits
 0 5.4 4.0–7.3   3.1 2.3–4.3   2.6 1.9–3.5   −2.3 −0.5 −2.8**
 1–3 15.3 13.3–17.5 0.523 13.5 11.9–15.2 0.379 10.3 8.8–11.9 0.063 −1.8 −3.2 −5**
  ≥ 4 55.2 51.2–59.0   51.4 48.5–54.2   45.7 42.8–45.6   −3.8 −5.7** −9.5**
 Don’t remember 6.3 4.7–8.3   4.8 3.9–5.8   16.4 14.2–18.8   −1.5 11.6** 10.1**
Place of delivery
 Health facility 63.5 59.9–67.0 0.870 60.0 57.1–62.7 0.342 65.9 63.4–68.4 0.456 −3.5 5.9* 2.4
 Home/others 19.0 16.8–22.3   12.9 11.2–14.8   9.0 7.6–10.6   −6.1* −3.9 −10**
Delivery mode
 Vaginal 66.9 64.3–69.5 < 0.001 66.2 63.6–68.7 < 0.001   −0.7  
 Caesarean 5.8 4.6–7.4   8.7 7.2–10.5    2.9  
Parity
 1 23.3 20.9–26.0   23.6 21.2–26.3   23.9 21.8–26.2   0.3 0.3 0.6
 2–3 33.0 30.4–35.7 0.093 30.9 28.6–33.2 0.466 31.3 29.0–33.7 0.086 −2.1 0.4 −1.7
 4+ 26.1 23.1–29.4   18.3 16.3–20.5   19.7 17.6–22.0   −7.8 1.4 −6.4**
Delivery assistance
 Health professional 73.9 70.7–76.8   68.2 65.6–70.7   72.1 69.7–74.4 0.049 −5.7 3.9 −1.8
 TBAs 2.0 1.3–3.1 0.438 1.3 0.7–2.1 0.062 0.2 0.1–0.5   −0.7 −1.1* −1.8*
 Relative/self 6.2 4.7–8.2   3.3 2.4–4.4   2.6 2.0–3.5   −2.9 −0.7 −3.6**
Birth order
 1 23.8 21.3–26.4   23.6 21.2–26.3   23.9 21.8–26.2 0.086 −0.2 0.3 0.1
 2–3 32.8 30.2–35.6 0.111 30.9 28.6–33.2 0.466 31.3 28.9–33.7   −1.9 0.4 −1.5
 4+ 25.8 22.8–29.1   18.3 16.3–20.5   19.7 17.6–22.0   −7.5 1.4 −6.1
Baby’s sex
 Male 41.2 37.8–44.6 0.426 36.4 34.0–38.9 0.284 36.8 34.4–39.2 0.134 −4.8 0.4 −4.4
 Female 41.3 38.3–44.3   36.4 33.8–39.1   38.1 35.7–40.6   −4.9 1.7 −3.2
Baby’s birth size
 Small 23.5 20.4–26.8   24.6 22.2–27.2   28.6 26.1–31.1   1.1 4 5.1
 Average 47.2 43.5–50.9 0.001 37.7 35.2–40.4 0.008 33.6 31.0–36.3 0.090 −9.5** −4.1 −13.6**
 Large 11.7 9.7–14.0   10.4 8.8–12.1   12.8 11.0–14.9   −1.3 2.4 1.1
  1. ANC antenatal care, CI confidence interval, TBAs traditional birth attendants
  2. ap-value for association for each year
  3. bPercentage point difference between survey years with a significance tests for difference in proportions; *p-value < 0.05; **p-value < 0.01