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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses of factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding

From: Trends and factors associated with early initiation of breastfeeding in Namibia: analysis of the Demographic and Health Surveys 2000–2013

  2000 2006–2007 2013
Characteristics COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI) COR (95% CI) AOR (95% CI)
Age, years
 15–19 0.91 (0.51–1.63) 1.10 (0.53–2.31) 0.87 (0.57–1.34) 1.00 (0.57–1.75) 1.56 (0.96–2.56) 2.28 (1.22–4.24)*
 20–34 1.38 (0.89–2.15) 1.55 (0.91–2.62) 1.26 (0.94–1.69) 1.49 (1.07–2.08)* 1.05 (0.76–1.46) 1.30 (0.90–1.87)
 35–49 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Residence
 Rural 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Urban 0.74 (0.46–1.19) 0.58 (0.36–0.93)* 1.03 (0.77–1.36) 0.89 (0.64–1.24) 1.07 (0.84–1.38) 0.93 (0.68–1.26)
Marital status
 Never married 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Married/cohabiting 1.29 (0.86–1.94) 1.23 (0.73–2.07) 0.99 (0.78–1.27) 0.94 (0.72–1.24) 1.44 (1.10–1.90)* 1.57 (1.16–2.14)*
 Divorced/separated 0.93 (0.47–1.81) 0.96 (0.47–1.96) 1.44 (0.78–2.64) 1.41 (0.75–2.65) 1.09 (0.59–2.01) 1.11 (0.60–2.03)
Education
 Tertiary 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Secondary 0.96 (0.38–2.47) 0.90 (0.32–2.51) 1.11 (0.55–2.26) 0.86 (0.37–1.99) 1.75 (0.98–3.11) 1.22 (0.51–2.19)
 Primary 0.98 (0.41–2.39) 0.89 (0.32–2.43) 1.35 (0.66–2.76) 1.03 (0.43–2.48) 1.95 (1.07–3.56)* 1.06 (0.51–2.19)
 No formal 1.23 (0.46–3.23) 0.95 (0.31–2.88) 1.28 (0.62–2.67) 0.93 (0.37–2.38) 2.31 (1.14–4.68)* 1.21 (0.51–2.86)
Occupation
 Paid work 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Agriculture 4.03 (0.98–16.5) 2.87 (0.69–11.9) 1.01 (0.71–1.43) 0.91 (0.62–1.35) 1.62 (0.62–4.24) 1.55 (0.58–4.11)
 Not working 1.03 (0.66–1.56) 1.05 (0.69–1.60) 1.04 (0.77–1.41) 0.98 (0.72–1.34) 1.36 (1.07–174)* 1.27 (0.97–1.66)
Wealth
 Richest 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Richer 0.87 (0.56–1.35) 0.91 (0.54–1.51) 0.90 (0.63–1.29) 0.87 (0.60–1.26) 1.51 (1.04–2.02)* 1.35 (0.90–2.03)
 Average 1.30 (0.81–2.10) 1.52 (0.86–2.68) 0.94 (0.68–1.30) 0.93 (0.65–1.33) 1.47 (0.98–2.20) 1.22 (0.78–1.91)
 Poorer 1.36 (0.82–2.22) 1.82 (1.05–3.17)* 1.14 (0.79–1.64) 1.07 (0.73–1.58) 1.33 (0.93–1.92) 1.02 (0.67–1.56)
 Poorest 1.13 (0.70–1.81) 1.52 (0.89–2.57) 1.13 (0.76–1.68) 1.08 (0.70–1.66) 1.26 (0.86–1.85) 0.94 (0.59–1.48)
ANC attendance, visits
 0 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 1–3 0.69 (0.28–1.70) 0.19 (0.04–1.05) 0.81 (0.44–1.52) 1.02 (0.12–8.55) 0.62 (0.30–1.26) 0.17 (0.01–3.16)
 4+ 0.57 (0.25–1.29) 0.14 (0.03–0.81)* 0.67 (0.37–1.20) 0.85 (0.10–7.09) 0.45 (0.24–0.84)* 0.14 (0.01–2.51)
 Do not remember 0.67 (0.22–2.05) 0.18 (0.03–1.21) 0.65 (0.34–1.28) 0.79 (0.09–6.65) 0.57 (0.29–1.14) 0.16 (0.01–3.09)
Place of delivery
 Home/others 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Health facility 1.03 (0.70–1.53) 1.33 (0.86–2.07) 1.13 (0.87–1.47) 1.53 (1.10–2.14)* 0.88 (0.63–1.23) 1.25 (0.83–1.90)
Delivery modea
 Caesarean 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Vaginal 2.53 (1.75–3.68)** 2.58 (1.68–3.97)** 2.84 (2.03–3.97)** 2.74 (1.90–3.93)**
Delivery assistance
 TBAs 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Health professional 0.47 (0.15–1.47) 0.48 (0.14–1.61) 0.32 (0.10–1.01) 0.19 (0.04–0.91)* 3.60 (1.09–11.8)* 3.67 (1.23–10.9)*
 Relative/self 0.44 (0.13–1.47) 0.13 (0.02–0.81) 0.47 (0.13–1.71) 0.30 (0.02–4.30) 5.31 (1.36–20.7)* 0.99 (0.05–20.7)
Birth order
 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 2–3 1.50 (1.01–2.23)* 1.36 (0.87–2.12) 1.13 (0.85–1.50) 0.99 (0.69–1.43) 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 1.16 (0.86–1.56)
 4+ 1.10 (0.74–1.64) 1.20 (0.67–2.15) 1.21 (0.86–1.72) 1.23 (0.78–1.95) 1.42 (1.03–1.97)* 1.52 (1.03–2.26)*
Baby’s birth size
 Average 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Small 0.39 (0.24–0.63)** 0.38 (0.24–0.60)** 0.64 (0.44–0.93)* 0.63 (0.44–0.90)* 0.71 (0.51–0.99)* 0.72 (0.65–1.01)
 Large 0.55 (0.37–0.79)* 0.51 (0.34–0.78)* 0.67 (0.51–0.90)* 0.69 (0.51–0.94)* 0.83 (0.64–1.07) 0.86 (0.52–1.13)
  1. aDelivery mode was not available for the 2000 NDHS. However, this was measured in the later surveys
  2. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, COR crude odds ratio (unadjusted odds ratio), NDHS Namibia Demographic Health Survey, TBAs traditional birth attendants **p-value < 0.001 *p-value < 0.05