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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and the risk factors for presence of an isthmocele

From: Risk factors for Korean women to develop an isthmocele after a cesarean section

  Without Isthmocele With Isthmocele P value
Number 106 298  
Age (years) 32.64 ± 4.80 33.19 ± 4.19 0.269
Height (cm) 160.16 ± 4.60 160.24 ± 5.62 0.881
Weight (before pregnancy, kg) 56.74 ± 10.40 58.36 ± 11.66 0.207
Weight (during pregnancy, kg) 70.14 ± 11.18 70.61 ± 11.75 0.720
BMI (before pregnancy, kg/m2) 22.12 ± 3.96 22.71 ± 4.23 0.215
BMI (during pregnancy, kg/m2) 27.36 ± 4.33 27.47 ± 4.14 0.816
Number of CS (n) 1.43 ± 0.70 1.57 ± 0.70 0.094
Comorbidity (n, %)
 DM 9 (8.5) 30 (10.1) 0.637
 Hypertension 14 (13.2) 44 (14.8) 0.695
Parity (n) 1.56 ± 0.74 1.69 ± 0.77 0.127
Preterm experience (n, %) 32 (30.2) 94 (31.5) 0.796
Reason for visiting (n, %)
 Routine examination 65 (61.3) 185 (62.1) 0.890
 Vaginal spotting 13 (12.3) 48 (16.1) 0.343
 Abnormal uterine bleeding 11 (10.4) 29 (9.7) 0.848
 Dysmenorrhea 2 (1.9) 3 (1.0) 0.610
 Pelvic pain 14 (13.2) 32 (10.7) 0.492
 Sterility 3 (2.8) 1 (0.3) 0.057
 Irregular menstruation 3 (2.8) 13 (4.4) 0.772
Follow up period of ultrasound (month) 17.72 ± 25.07 16.38 ± 24.53 0.631
Reason for CS (n, %)
 Repeat CS 34 (32.1) 135 (45.3) 0.018*
 Fetal distress 14 (13.2) 41 (13.8) 0.887
 PPT 15 (14.2) 21 (7.1) 0.028*
 Preeclampsia 11 (10.4) 23 (7.7) 0.397
 Breech 15 (14.2) 25 (8.4) 0.088
 Twin 13 (12.3) 10 (3.4) 0.001*
 Arrest of descent 5 (4.7) 19 (6.4) 0.535
 Arrest of dilatation 1 (0.9) 5 (1.7) 1.000
PROM (n, %) 18 (17.0) 83 (28.0) 0.025*
Type of CS (n, %)
 Elective CS 59 (55.7) 137 (46.0) 0.087
 Emergency CS 47 (44.3) 161 (54.0)  
Gestational weeks 36.72 ± 2.58 36.87 ± 2.74 0.626
Birth weight (g) 2861.9 ± 691.4 2895.2 ± 720.7 0.680
Operation time (total, min) 56.69 ± 18.27 51.88 ± 15.75 0.010*
 From skin incision to baby out 7.91 ± 5.14 6.78 ± 4.43 0.032*
 From baby out to skin closure 48.78 ± 15.42 45.10 ± 13.66 0.022*
Repair of uterine incision (n, %)    0.579
 Single layer 68 (64.2) 200 (67.1)  
 Double layer 38 (35.9) 98 (32.9)
Induction of labor (n, %) 15 (14.2) 55 (18.5) 0.315
Oxytocin augmentation during labor (n, %) 12 (11.3) 56 (18.8) 0.077
Duration of active labor (n, %)    0.218
 not in active labor 75 (70.8) 177 (59.6)  
  < 5 h 15 (14.2) 62 (20.9)
 5–9 4 (3.8) 18 (6.1)
≥10 h 12(11.3) 40(13.5)
With uterine contractions (n, %) 38 (35.9) 137 (46.0) 0.071
Cervical dilatation at CS (n, %)    0.057
 closed 72 (67.9) 163 (54.7)  
  ≤ 4 cm 25 (23.6) 95 (31.9)
 5–7 cm 2 (1.9) 20 (6.7)
  ≥ 8 cm 7 (6.6) 20 (6.7)
Interval of previous CS (years) 1.64 ± 3.14 1.81 ± 2.56 0.610
Uterine position at ultrasound (n, %)    0.205
 anteversion 31 (29.3) 114 (38.3)  
 retroversion 7 (6.6) 13 (4.4)
  1. Independent t test was performed for continuous variables, Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test was performed for categorical variables
  2. BMI body mass index, CS cesarean section, PPT placenta previa totalis, PROM premature rupture of membrane
  3. *P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant