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Table 3 Association between isthmocele and demographic background variables

From: Risk factors for Korean women to develop an isthmocele after a cesarean section

  Univariable Multivariable
Odds ratio (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
Age (years) 1.03 (0.98–1.08) 0.268   
Number of CS 1.34 (0.95–1.88) 0.095  
BMI (before pregnancy) 1.04 (0.98–1.10) 0.216  
BMI (during pregnancy) 1.01 (0.95–1.06) 0.815  
Parity 1.27 (0.93–1.72) 0.128  
Preterm experience 1.07 (0.66–1.72) 0.796  
Reason for CS
 Repeat CS 1.75 (1.10–2.80) 0.019* 2.30 (1.26–4.23) 0.007*
 Fetal distress 1.05 (0.55–2.01) 0.888   
 PPT 0.46 (0.23–0.93) 0.031*  
 Preeclampsia 0.72 (0.34–1.54) 0.399  
 Breech 0.56 (0.28–1.10) 0.091  
 Twin 0.25 (0.11–0.59) 0.001* 0.25 (0.11–0.59) 0.001*
 Arrest of descent 1.38 (0.50–3.78) 0.537   
 Arrest of dilatation 1.79 (0.21–15.52) 0.596  
PROM 1.90 (1.08–3.34) 0.027*   
Type of CS
 Elective CS Reference   Reference  
 Emergency CS 1.48 (0.95–2.30) 0.087  
Pregnancy (weeks) 1.02 (0.94–1.11) 0.625   
Birth weight 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.679  
Operation time (total, min) 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.011* 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.002*
 From skin incision to baby out 0.95 (0.91–1.00) 0.037   
 From baby out to skin closure 0.98 (0.97–1.00) 0.024  
Repair of uterine incision
 Single layer Reference   Reference  
 Double layer 0.88 (0.55–1.40) 0.579  
Induction of labor 1.37 (0.74–2.55) 0.316   
Oxytocin augmentation during labor 1.81 (0.93–3.53) 0.081  
Duration of active labor   0.224   
 not in active labor Reference   Reference  
  < 5 h 1.75 (0.94–3.27) 0.079  
 5–9 h 1.91 (0.62–5.82) 0.257  
  ≥ 10 h 1.41 (0.70–2.84) 0.333  
With uterine contractions 1.52 (0.96–2.41) 0.072   
Cervical dilatation at CS   0.072   0.002*
 closed Reference   Reference  
  ≤ 4 cm 1.68 (1.00–2.83) 0.051 3.04 (1.57–5.92) 0.001*
 5–7 cm 4.41 (1.01–19.37) 0.049 13.11 (1.77–97.27) 0.012*
  ≥ 8 cm 1.26 (0.51–3.12) 0.614 2.04 (0.71–5.91) 0.188
Ratio (E/F) 1.27 (0.94–1.72) 0.124   
Blood transfusion 0.33 (0.14–0.79) 0.013*  
  1. Multivariable logistic regression model was performed by backward elimination methods. Because of missing data, some isthmocele variables were not calculated
  2. *P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant