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Table 3 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio for the development of gestational hypertension after exposure to antidepressant drugs during pregnancy in the primary analysis

From: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the risk of developing gestational hypertension: a retrospective cohort study

Outcome N % Unadjusted OR (95% CI) P-Value Adjusted OR (95% CI)a P-value
Antidepressant use
 No exposure 27,481 98.08     
 Exposure 539 1.92 1.99 (1.29–3.09) .002 2.00 (1.28–3.13) .002
Type of antidepressant*
 TCAs (N06AA) 89 16.51 1.61 (0.51–5.11) .418 1.60 (0.50–5.09) .429
 SSRIs (N06AB) 394 73.10 2.11 (1.30–3.45) .003 2.07 (1.25–3.44) .005
 MAOI (N06AF) 1
 RIMA (N06AG) 3
 Other (N06AX) 66 12.25 1.44 (0.35–5.90) .611 1.43 (0.35–5.91) .618
DDD
  ≤ 30 150 27.64 0.64 (0.16–2.57) .524 0.68 (0.17–2.75) .584
  ≥ 30 389 72.36 2.55 (1.61–4.02) <.001 2.50 (1.55–3.99) <.001
DDD SSRIs
  ≤ 30 91 16.70 0.52 (0.07–3.74) .516 1.28 (0.56–2.92) .561
  ≥ 30 303 56.40 2.61 (1.57–4.35) <.001 2.27 (1.44–3.60) <.001
Period
 0–10 weeks 506 93.88 2.14 (1.38–3.30) .001 2.13 (1.36–3.34) .001
 11–20 weeks 290 53.80 2.38 (1.38–4.10) .002 2.36 (1.35–4.12) .003
 0–10 weeks only 249 46,20 1.56 (0.77–3.17) .220 1.59 (0.78–3.26) .205
 Both periods (0–20 weeks) 257 47.68 2.71 (1.57–4.67) <.001 2.66 (1.52–4.65) .001
Maternal age
 15–19 474 1.69
 20–24 3636 12.98 1.11 (0.15–8.16) .919
 25–29 10,233 36.52 2.03 (0.89–4.65) .093
 30–34 9597 34.25 2.59 (1.35–4.98) .004
 34–39 3499 12.49 1.23 (0.38–3.95) .731
 40+ 581 2.07 1.26 (0.29–5.56) .758
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, TCAs tricyclic antidepressants, SSRIs selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, MAOI non-selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors, RIMA reversible inhibitors monoamine oxidase A, DDD defined daily dose
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age and medications use during pregnancy i.e. prescriptions of benzodiazepines and antibiotics
  3. *One patient can be exposed to multiple antidepressants