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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to energy reporting status

From: The characterisation of overweight and obese women who are under reporting energy intake during pregnancy

Outcomes   10–20 weeks (total sample, n = 923) 10–20 weeks (completers, n = 497) 36 weeks (n = 504)
UR N = 359 (38.9%) AR N = 564 (61.1%) P UR N = 188 37.8%) AR N = 309 (62.2%) P UR N = 251 (49.8%) AR N = 253 (50.2%) P
EI/BMR mean ± SD 0.71 ± 0.15 1.25 ± 0.26 < 0.001 0.72 ± 0.13 1.25 ± 0.27 < 0.001 0.68 ± 0.14 1.21 ± 0.26 < 0.001
Physical activity (MET/min/wk) mean ± SD 6838.3 ± 4309.1 7661.5 ± 198.1 0.008 6877.8 ± 4073.6 7555.7 ± 4099.4 0.074 5489.0 ± 3889.7 5568.3 ± 3680.9 0.816
Energy intake (kJ) mean ± SD 5707.5 ± 1215.0 9726.3 ± 2082.2 < 0.001 5776.8 ± 1142.9 9673.7 ± 2101.0 < 0.001 5986.5 ± 1258.9 10,400.8 ± 2202.9 < 0.001
HEI total mean ± SD 71.5 ± 7.8 73.0 ± 7.0 0.002 72.2 ± 7.7 73.4 ± 6.9 0.085 70.8 ± 7.9 71.5 ± 7.5 0.319
Age (years) mean ± SD 28.5 ± 5.5 30.2 ± 5.2 < 0.001 28.9 ± 5.1 30.4 ± 29.9 0.001 29.4 ± 5.2 30.4 ± 5.0 0.029
<  20 years 16 (4.5%) 10 (1.8%) 0.002 4 (2.1%) 5 (1.6%) 0.241 5 (2.0%) 4 (1.6%) 0.505
20- < 30 years 193 (53.8%) 255 (45.2%)   96 (51.1%) 134 (43.4%)   123 (49.0%) 109 (43.1%)  
30- < 40 years 141 (39.3%) 276 (48.9%)   85 (45.2%) 159 (51.5%)   117 (46.6%) 131 (51.8%)  
≥40 years 9 (2.5%) 23 (4.1%)   3 (1.6%) 11 (3.6%)   6 (2.4%) 9 (3.6%)  
Weight (kg) mean ± SD 92.7 ± 18.0 84.7 ± 15.8 < 0.001 91.7 ± 17.6 83.3 ± 14.5 < 0.001 99.4 ± 17.4 93.4 ± 13.3 < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) mean ± SD 33.9 ± 6.1 31.3 ± 5.4 < 0.001 33.5 ± 6.2 30.8 ± 5.0 < 0.001 36.7 ± 5.8 34.3 ± 4.6 < 0.001
Overweight 119 (33.1%) 287 (50.9%) < 0.001 65 (34.6%) 162 (52.4%) < 0.001 20 (8.0%) 34 (13.4%) < 0.001
Obese class I 98 (27.3%) 163 (28.9%)   56 (29.8%) 96 (31.1%)   97 (38.6%) 129 (51.0%)  
Obese class II 81 (22.6%) 70 (12.4%)   38 (20.2%) 34 (11.0%)   72 (28.7%) 63 (24.9%)  
Obese class III 61 (17.0%) 44 (7.8%)   29 (15.4%) 17 (5.5%)   62 (24.7%) 27 (10.7%)  
Parity 0 155 (43.2%) 219 (38.8%) 0.190 84 (44.7%) 130 (42.1%) 0.569 115 (45.8%) 102 (40.3%) 0.212
≥1 204 (56.8%) 345 (61.2%)   104 (55.3%) 179 (57.9%)   136 (54.2%) 151 (59.7%)  
Smoking No 308 (88.0%) 498 (90.5%) 0.224 165 (89.7%) 286 (94.4%) 0.054 25 (89.8%) 11 (95.6%) 0.014
Yes 42 (12.0%) 52 (9.5%)   19 (10.3%) 17 (5.6%)   221 (10.2%) 237 (4.4%)  
SEIFA Quintile 1 105 (29.3%) 164 (29.1%) 0.194 48 (25.5%) 72 (23.3%) 0.382 70 (27.9%) 50 (19.8%) 0.056
Quintile 2 102 (28.5%) 124 (22.0%)   58 (30.9%) 75 (24.3%)   73 (29.1%) 64 (25.3%)  
Quintile 3 48 (13.4%) 92 (16.3%)   29 (15.4%) 54 (17.5%)   41 (16.3%) 43 (17.0%)  
Quintile 4 51 (14.2%) 93 (16.5%)   28 (14.9%) 54 (17.5%)   35 (13.9%) 48 (19.0%)  
Quintile 5 52 (14.5%) 91 (16.1%)   25 (13.3%) 54 (17.5%)   32 (12.7%) 48 (19.0%)  
Ethnicity Caucasian 330 (91.9%) 515 (91.3%) 0.745 176 (93.6%) 288 (93.2%) 0.858 233 (92.8%) 236 (93.3%) 0.157
Non-Caucasian 29 (9.1%) 49 (8.7%)   12 (6.4%) 21 (6.8%)   18 (7.2%) 17 (6.7%)  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or proportions and were analysed by independent t test or chi squared tests
  2. Over reporters were excluded from analysis
  3. AR Adequate reporter, ATSI Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, EI/BMR energy intake: basal metabolic rate, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus; HEI Healthy Eating Index, MET Metabolic equivalent, SD Standard deviation, SEIFA Socioeconomic indices for areas disadvantage score South Asian: Indian/Pakistan/Sri Lankan, UR under reporter