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Table 1 Paternal and maternal characteristics in 683,785 births in Norway, 1999–2010

From: Paternal characteristics associated with maternal periconceptional use of folic acid supplementation

  Births
Fathers % Mothers %
Number of births 683,785 100.0 683,785 100.0
Age
 < 20 4401 0.6 15,464 2.3
 20–24 48,448 7.1 100,016 14.6
 25–29 162,671 23.8 223,480 32.7
 30–34 235,401 34.4 228,203 33.4
 35–39 151,540 22.2 99,727 14.6
 40+ 81,324 11.9 16,895 2.5
Education
 Compulsory education (1–9 years) 130,953 19.2 125,479 18.4
 Intermediate (10–12 years) 302,384 44.2 230,320 33.7
 Tertiary education (13–19 years) 229,818 33.6 298,036 43.6
 Missing data 20,630 3.0 29,950 4.4
Occupational class a
 I Higher professionals 86,635 12.7 50,650 7.4
 II Lower professionals 152,781 22.3 122,804 18.0
 IIIa Higher routine 77,540 11.3 197,174 28.8
 IIIb Lower routine 40,070 5.9 114,795 16.8
 IV Other self-employed workers 358 0.1 119 0.0
 V Technicians 5550 0.8 1492 0.2
 VI Skilled 108,755 15.9 15,961 2.3
 VII Semiskilled and unskilled 111,584 16.3 73,994 10.8
 VIIb Agricultural 7663 1.1 2720 0.4
 Unclassified 52,824 7.7 51,264 7.5
 Missing data 40,025 5.9 52,812 7.7
Country of origin b
Norway 574,602 84.0 567,241 83.0
High income countries 33,487 4.9 30,920 4.5
Low/middle-income countries 75,497 11.0 85,597 12.5
Missing data 199 0.0 27 0.0
Marital status
 Unmarried    37,057 5.4
 Married/Partnership    634,283 92.8
 Divorced    3417 0.5
 Missing data    9028 1.3
In vitro fertilization (IVF)
 No    669,024 97.8
 Yes    14,761 2.2
Birth order
 1    280,178 41.0
 2    244,532 35.8
 ≥3    159,075 23.3
Maternal chronic disease c
 No    623,817 91.2
 Yes    59,968 8.8
Maternal smoking before pregnancy
 Non-smoker    456,797 66.8
 Intermittent    18,518 2.7
 Daily    93,662 13.7
 Missing data    114,808 16.8
Maternal folic acid use in pregnancy
 No use    371,820 54.4
 Only before    8930 1.3
 Only during    192,169 28.1
 Before and during    110,866 16.2
  1. aCategorized according to the class scheme of Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocarero (EGP) [33]
  2. bCategorized according to the classification by World Health Organization, Health statistics and information systems, Estimates for 2000–2012 [34]
  3. cAsthma, hypertension, kidney disease, chronic urinary infection, rheumatoid arthritis, heart disease, epilepsy, diabetes mellitus (type I or II), and thyroid disease