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Table 2 Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of adequate maternal periconceptional folic acid supplement use (before and during pregnancy) by paternal characteristics, in 683,785 births, Norway, 1999–2010

From: Paternal characteristics associated with maternal periconceptional use of folic acid supplementation

  Folic acid supplementation use Unadjusted Adjusted for paternal factors a b Further adjusted for maternal factors a c
Characteristics Yes No RR* 95% CI RR* 95% CI RR* 95% CI
Paternal age (years)
 < 20 86 4315 0.11 0.09–0.13 0.10 0.08–0.13 0.35 0.28–0.43
 20–24 3325 45,123 0.37 0.36–0.39 0.37 0.36–0.38 0.68 0.66–0.71
 25–29 22,886 139,785 0.76 0.75–0.78 0.77 0.76–0.79 0.94 0.93–0.96
 30–34 43,348 192,053 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 35–39 28,488 123,052 1.02 1.01–1.03 0.97 0.96–0.99 0.90 0.89–0.91
 40+ 12,733 68,591 0.85 0.83–0.87 0.80 0.78–0.81 0.72 0.71–0.74
Paternal education
 Compulsory (1–10 years) 11,694 119,259 0.40 0.39–0.40 0.52 0.51–0.53 0.69 0.68–0.71
 Intermediate (11–13 years) 45,411 256,973 0.67 0.66–0.67 0.75 0.74–0.76 0.87 0.85–0.88
 Tertiary (14–20 years) 51,894 177,924 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 Missing data 1867 18,763       
Paternal occupational class d
 I Higher professionals 19,957 66,678 1.05 1.04–1.07 1.05 1.03–1.06   
 II Lower professionals 33,366 119,415 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference   
 IIIa Higher routine 12,292 65,248 0.73 0.71–0.74 0.89 0.88–0.91   
 IIIb Lower routine 5352 34,718 0.61 0.59–0.63 0.85 0.83–0.87   
 IV Other self-employed workers 60 298 0.77 0.61–0.97 0.83 0.65–1.05   
 V Technicians 836 4714 0.69 0.65–0.74 0.89 0.84–0.95   
 VI Skilled 15,174 93,581 0.64 0.63–0.65 0.84 0.83–0.86   
 VII Semiskilled and unskilled 11,643 99,941 0.48 0.47–0.49 0.75 0.73–0.76   
 VIIb Agricultural 908 6755 0.54 0.51–0.58 0.73 0.69–0.78   
 Unclassified 7575 45,249 0.66 0.64–0.67 0.96 0.94–0.99   
 Missing data 3703 36,322       
Paternal country of origin e
 Norway 99,339 475,263 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference 1.00 Reference
 High income countries 6535 26,952 1.13 1.10–1.16 1.06 1.04–1.09 1.06 1.03–1.08
 Low-middle-income countries 4975 70,522 0.38 0.37–0.39 0.35 0.34–0.36 0.58 0.56–0.60
 Missing data 17 182       
  1. aAll RRs for adequate folic acid supplementation adjusted for year of childbirth (continuous)
  2. bRRs by paternal age, no other adjustment for paternal factors; RRs by paternal education adjusted for paternal age (< 20, 20–24, 25–29, 30–34, 35–39, 40+), paternal country of origin (Norway, high-income countries, low/middle-income countries); RRs by paternal occupation adjusted for paternal age, fathers country of origin, fathers education (compulsory, intermediate, tertiary); and RR by paternal origin of country, no other adjustment for paternal factors
  3. cRRs by paternal age, further adjusted for maternal age (< 20, 20–24, 25–29, 30–34, 35–39, 40+); RRs by paternal education, further adjusted for maternal education (compulsory, intermediate, tertiary); RRs by paternal occupation, no further adjustment for maternal factors; RRs by paternal country of origin adjusted for maternal country of origin (Norway, High-income countries, Low/middle-income countries)
  4. dCategorized according to the class scheme of Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocarero (EGP) [33]
  5. eCategorized according to the classification by World Health Organization, Health statistics and information systems, Estimates for 2000–2012 [34]
  6. *p-value for difference between categories of paternal characteristics was < 0.001 using likelihood ratio test