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Table 3 Univariate analysis of maternal and sociodemographic characteristics of neonates by birthweight in Uganda, 1995–2011

From: Survival of low birthweight neonates in Uganda: analysis of progress between 1995 and 2011

Variables 1995, N = 1160 2000–2001, N = 1100 2006, N = 1514 2011, N = 2199
  LBW (%) NBW (%) P value LBW NBW P value LBW NBW P value LBW NBW P value
Maternal age
 < 20 26(16.7) 130(83.3) < 0.01 15(13.4) 97(86.6) > 0.05 27(19.1) 114(80.9) < 0.01 20(12.7) 137(87.3) > 0.05
 20–34 81(9.4) 780(90.6)   77(9.2) 761(90.8)   112(10.0) 1004(90.0)   174(11.5) 1337(88.5)  
 35–49 15(10.5) 128(89.5)   17(11.2) 135(88.8)   41(16.0) 216(84.0)   39(9.0) 395(91.0)  
Wealth n = 392   n = 424a        
 Poor 15(10.9) 123(89.1) > 0.05 19(10.1) 169(89.9) > 0.05 61(13.7) 385(86.3) > 0.05 72(10.9) 587(89.1) > 0.05
 Middle/rich 26(10.2) 228(89.8)   25(10.6) 211(89.4)   118(11.1) 949(88.9)   161(11.2) 1282(88.8)  
Education level
 No education 24(17.9) 110(82.1) < 0.01 21(16.7) 105(83.3) < 0.01 29(15.9) 153(84.1) < 0.05 27(15.6) 146(84.4) > 0.05
 Primary 67(10.2) 592(89.8)   60(9.8) 555(90.2)   101(11.7) 763(88.3)   121(10.4) 1040(89.6)  
 Secondary 31(8.4) 336(91.6)   28(7.8) 332(92.2)   49(10.5) 418(89.5)   85(11.1) 684(88.9)  
Parity
 Primiparous 45(15.1) 254(84.9) < 0.01 27(9.6) 255(90.4) > 0.05 50(13.8) 312(86.2) > 0.05 58(13.6) 368(86.4) > 0.05
 Para 2–3 48(9.0) 487(91.0)   51(10.5) 437(89.5)   69(11.0) 560(89.0)   98(10.3) 858(89.7)  
 Para 4+ 29(8.9) 297(91.1)   31(9.4) 300(90.6)   60(11.5) 462(88.5)   77(10.7) 643(89.3)  
Place of residence
 Rural 67(12.8) 455(87.2) < 0.05 76(10.1) 674(89.9) > 0.05 134(12.6) 928(87.4) > 0.05 167(11.1) 1343(88.9) > 0.05
 Urban 55(8.6) 583(91.4)   33(9.4) 319(90.6)   46(10.2) 406(89.8)   66(11.1) 526 (88.9)  
Marital status
 Single 25(12.5) 175(87.5) > 0.05 29(14.5) 171(85.5) < 0.05 39(13.9) 241(86.1) > 0.05 36(10.1) 321(89.9) > 0.05
 Married 97(10.1) 863(89.9)   80(8.9) 821(91.1)   141(11.4) 1093(88.6)   197(11.3) 1547(88.7)  
Cesarean
 Yes 4(5.6) 68(94.4) > 0.05 11(11.8) 82(88.2) > 0.05 24(19.7) 98(80.3) < 0.01 29(12.3) 206(87.7) > 0.05
 No 118(10.8) 970(89.2)   99(9.8) 909(9.2)   154(11.1) 1232(88.9)   212(10.8) 1752(89.2)  
Check-up
 No No data    72(9.5) 683(90.5) > 0.05 105(12.0) 767(88.0) > 0.05 87(10.2) 769(89.8) > 0.05
 Yes     34(10.1) 302(89.9)   73(11.8) 1315(88.1)   143(11.2) 1132(88.8)  
  1. LBW refers to low birthweight (< 2500 g), NBW refers to normal birthweight (≥2500 g – 4000 g). P values were obtained from chi square test
  2. aThe separate totals (n) for wealth index in 1995 and 2000 shows a deviation from the total (N) due to missing data