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Table 3 Mode of birth as a risk factor for sexual health issues at 6 and 12 months postpartum

From: Prevalence of and risk factors associated with sexual health issues in primiparous women at 6 and 12 months postpartum; a longitudinal prospective cohort study (the MAMMI study)

  6 months postpartum 12 months postpartum
  n/total % Unadjusted OR 95% CI p value n/total % Unadjusted OR 95% CI p value
Dyspareunia           
 Spontaneous vaginal birth 108/279 38.7 1.0 (ref.)    60/280 21.4 1.0 (ref.)   
 Vacuum birth 83/163 50.9 1.6 1.1–2.4 0.013* 47/164 28.7 1.5 0.9–2.3 0.086
 Forceps birth 30/89 33.7 0.8 0.5–1.3 0.397 18/96 18.8 0.8 0.4–1.5 0.577
 Elective CS 16/66 24.2 0.5 0.3–0.9 0.03* 10/64 15.6 0.7 0.3–1.4 0.3
 Emergency CS 61/181 33.7 0.8 0.5–1.2 0.277 31/181 17.1 0.8 0.5–1.2 0.258
Lack of vaginal lubrication         
 Spontaneous vaginal birth 122/285 42.8 1.0 (ref.)    93/286 32.5 1.0 (ref.)   
 Vacuum birth 83/166 50 1.3 0.9–2.0 0.139 63/164 33 1.3 0.9–1.9 0.206
 Forceps birth 36/92 39.1 0.9 0.5–1.4 0.535 33/96 34.4 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.738
 Elective CS 22/65 33.8 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.187 20/64 31.3 0.9 0.5–1.7 0.845
 Emergency CS 77/181 42.5 1.0 0.7–1.4 0.955 69/185 37.3 1.2 0.8–1.8 0.287
Loss of interest in sexual activity        
 Spontaneous vaginal birth 145/285 50.9 1.0 (ref.)    112/286 39.2 1.0 (ref.)   
 Vacuum birth 88/165 53.3 1.1 0.7–1.6 0.615 69/165 41.8 1.1 0.8–1.6 0.579
 Forceps birth 40/95 42.1 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.139 40/96 41.7 1.1 0.7–1.8 0.664
 Elective CS 25/67 37.3 0.6 0.3–1.0 0.047 29/65 44.6 1.2 0.7–2.1 0.419
 Emergency CS 73/181 40.3 0.6 0.4–0.9 0.027* 63/179 35.2 0.8 0.6–1.2 0.391
  1. *indicates statistical signficance at p < 0.05