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Table 7 Multivariable logistic regression of dyspareunia at 6 and 12 months postpartum

From: Prevalence of and risk factors associated with sexual health issues in primiparous women at 6 and 12 months postpartum; a longitudinal prospective cohort study (the MAMMI study)

Associated factors   6/12 postpartum    12/12 postpartum   
  Total n = 748 Total n = 585
  OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Age Groups 18–29 years 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   
30–34 years 0.7 0.4–1.0 0.059 0.7 0.4–1.2 0.222
35+ years 0.7 0.4–1.0 0.096 0.4 0.2–0.8 0.009*
BMI Groups Ideal 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   
Overweight 1.0 0.6–1.6 0.947 0.9 0.5–1.7 0.773
Obese 1.1 0.6–1.8 0.841 0.8 0.4–1.7 0.545
Underweight 1.4 0.7–2.7 0.325 1.4 0.6–3.4 0.387
Unknown BMI 0.7 0.3–1.4 0.366 0.9 0.4–2.5 0.926
Highest level of education No degree 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   
Primary degree 1.4 0.9–2.1 0.11 1.3 0.7–2.3 0.35
Postgrad qualification 1.1 0.7–1.6 0.698 1.3 0.8–2.3 0.283
Pre-existing dyspareunia Yes 2.6 1.8–3.6 < 0.001* 3.8 2.5–5.8 < 0.001*
Mode of birth SVB 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   
Vacuum birth 1.7 0.9–2.7 0.053 1.5 0.7–2.8 0.225
Forceps birth 0.7 0.3–1.4 0.384 0.8 0.3–1.8 0.611
Elective CS 0.7 0.3–1.7 0.491 1.9 0.6–5.7 0.255
Emergency CS 1.1 0.6–2.2 0.605 1.537 0.6–3.7 0.344
Perineal trauma Intacta 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   
2nd degree 1.6 0.8–3.1 0.133 1.4 0.5–3.4 0.466
3rd degree 4.1 1.3–12.3 0.013* 2.7 0.7–10.1 0.143
Episiotomy 1.4 0.7–2.7 0.336 1.5 0.6–3.6 0.374
Still breastfeeding Yes 1.9 1.3–2.7 < 0.001* 1.1 0.7–1.9 0.56
Perception of body image Always satisfied 1.0 (ref.)    1.0 (ref.)   0.993
Sometimes satisfied 0.9 0.6–1.5 0.96 1.0 0.6–1.7 0.941
Never satisfied 1.4 0.8–2.4 0.211 1.0 0.5–2.2 0.905
  1. aincludes 1st degree tears and vaginal wall and labial tears
  2. *indicates statistical signficance at p < 0.05