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Table 2 Odds ratios antenatal care visits, skilled birth delivery and contraceptive use for the years 2006 and 2012

From: Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in Benin: a population based cross-sectional study

Variable ANC Facility-based delivery Postnatal care Contraceptive use
2006 2012 2006 2012 2006 2012 2006 2012
Age
 15–19 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 20–24 0.95 (0.69–1.29) 1.19 (0.93–1.52) 0.95 (0.62–1.47) 0.83 (0.31–2.22) 0.90 (0.61–1.33) 0.89 (0.54–1.48) 1.10 (0.69–1.75) 1.04 (0.85–1.28)
 25–29 0.92 (0.68–1.26) 1.25 (0.98–1.58) 1.25 (0.83–1.88) 0.84 (0.32–2.21) 0.83 (0.57–1.21) 1.12 (0.70–1.79) 1.06 (0.67–1.68) 1.19 (0.97–1.47)
 30–34 1.07 (0.77–1.49) 1.08 (0.85–1.37) 1.49 (0.96–2.32) 0.67 (0.23–1.91) 0.87 (0.58–1.29) 1.09 (0.67–1.77) 1.10 (0.68–1.77) 1.04 (0.83–1.29)
 35–39 1.20 (0.85–1.69) 1.05 (0.82–1.35) 1.81 (1.10–2.97) 1.21 (0.42–3.50) 1.04 (0.67–1.59) 1.25 (0.76–2.04) 1.10 (0.67–1.80) 1.33 (1.06–1.68)
 40–44 1.12 (0.76–1.66) 1.08 (0.81–1.43) 3.45 (1.96–6.10) 1.41 (0.48–4.18) 0.70 (0.43–1.15) 1.14 (0.64–2.01) 0.92 (0.56–1.52) 1.31 (1.04–1.65)
 45–49 1.07 (0.72–1.59) 1.29 (0.86–1.94) 8.39 (4.74–14.83) 14.5 (3.55–59.41) 0.91 (0.52–1.61) 0.59 (0.25–1.37) 0.55 (0.33–0.93) 0.90 (0.69–1.16)
Region
 Alibori 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Atacora 1.56 (0.99–2.46) 1.09 (0.73–1.60) 1.68 (0.99–2.82) 1.07 (0.49–2.33) 1.29 (0.70–2.38) 2.72 (1.59–4.66) 1.98 (1.16–3.36) 1.53 (0.79–2.96)
 Atlantique 3.14 (2.01–4.92) 0.87 (1.29–2.71) 31.1 (15.64–61.85) 5.37 (2.52–11.41) 0.22 (0.10–0.45) 1.43 (0.89–2.32) 5.18 (3.03–8.86) 0.81 (0.48–1.37)
 Borgou 1.69 (1.02–2.80) 0.93 (0.65–1.34) 1.14 (0.65–2.00) 0.97 (0.54–1.72) 0.37 (0.20–0.71) 2.85 (1.71–4.74) 1.63 (0.95–2.81) 1.61 (1.02–2.55)
 Collines 2.02 (1.28–3.19) 1.30 (0.87–1.94) 5.63 (2.96–10.69) 3.39 (1.38–8.36) 0.91 (0.47–1.75) 3.77 (2.82–6.24) 5.12 (3.04–8.64) 1.67 (0.96–2.92)
 Couffo 1.55 (0.98–2.43) 2.07 (1.39–3.11) 2.64 (1.51–4.63) 1.78 (0.76–4.19) 1.04 (0.52–2.10) 1.29 (0.72–2.32) 1.67 (0.94–2.96) 1.58 (0.95–2.62)
 Donga 1.57 (0.97–2.55) 0.92 (0.61–1.39) 1.85 (1.01–3.82) 1.46 (0.61–3.53) 1.80 (1.01–3.21) 1.60 (0.86–3.00) 1.04 (0.59–1.84) 0.47 (0.26–0.84)
 Littoral 3.88 (2.24–6.73) 1.49 (0.98–2.26) 7.80 (3.13–19.14) 1.50 (0.46–4.89) 1.29 (0.53–3.13) 2.27 (1.36–3.80) 2.69 (1.57–4.62) 1.32 (0.81–2.17)
 Mono 2.32 (1.44–3.72) 2.74 (1.77–4.24) 9.24 (4.46–19.14) 14.75 (4.74–45.88) 1.23 (0.63–2.42) 2.47 (1.41–4.32) 1.55 (0.89–2.72) 0.39 (0.22–0.67)
 Quémé 2.60 (1.69–3.99) 2.84 (1.94–4.18) 28.60 (14.52–56.33) 35.33 (4.67–267.4) 0.41 (0.20–0.85) 2.30 (1.46–3.63) 3.00 (1.81–4.96) 0.62 (0.38–0.99)
 Plateau 2.07 (1.31–3.29) 0.74 (0.49–1.13) 4.38 (2.46–7.81) 1.38 (0.61–3.12) 0.77 (0.35–1.70) 1.83 (0.76–4.40) 0.98 (0.53–1.81) 1.33 (0.79–2.24)
 Zou 2.85 (1.81–4.49) 2.42 (1.64–3.55) 19.49 (10.48–36.24) 8.47 (3.66–19.61) 0.57 (0.28–1.17) 1.03 (0.61–1.73) 1.96 (1.15–3.32) 1.32 (0.78–2.23)
Type of place of residence
 Urban 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Rural 1.02 (0.86–1.24) 1.01 (0.85–1.19) 0.93 (0.64–1.34) 0.68 (0.42–1.10) 0.82 (0.61–1.10) 0.86 (0.67–1.09) 0.83 (0.70–0.98) 1.17 (0.94–1.47)
Educational attainment         
 No formal education 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Primary 1.29 (1.08–1.53) 1.63 (1.39–1.92) 2.12 (1.56–2.89) 1.97 (1.20–3.26) 1.04 (0.75–1.45) 0.91 (0.68–1.23) 1.42 (1.22–1.65) 1.33 (1.14–1.56)
 Secondary 1.28 (0.91–1.79) 2.13 (1.69–2.68) 5.79 (1.89–17.72) 3.40 (1.25–9.24) 1.08 (0.57–2.08) 1.12 (0.75–1.68) 1.95 (1.59–2.38) 1.87 (1.55–2.25)
 Higher   2.60 (0.90–7.54)    15.35 (0.95–247.2) 1.16 (0.24–5.55) 1.16 (0.68–1.97) 2.09 (1.35–3.26)
Religion
 Christianity 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Islam 0.76 (0.61–0.95) 0.80 (0.67–0.96) 0.60 (0.45–0.81) 0.59 (0.39–0.90) 0.84 (0.55–1.29) 0.87 (0.68–1.12) 0.83 (0.68–1.02) 1.29 (1.08–1.55)
 Traditional 0.81 (0.67–0.97) 0.68 (0.57–0.82) 0.48 (0.35–0.64) 0.57 (0.32–1.02) 1.30 (0.97–1.75) 1.07 (0.77–1.49) 0.86 (0.69–1.08) 0.80 (0.63–0.99)
 Others 0.80 (0.64–0.98) 0.70 (0.56–0.88) 0.53 (0.39–0.73) 0.56 (0.34–0.92) 1.33 (0.91–1.94) 0.84 (0.58–1.3) 0.71 (0.55–0.92) 0.64 (0.46–0.88)
 Read newspaper/magazine 1.19 (0.78–1.82) 0.89 (0.68–1.16) 0.85 (0.37–1.94) 0.62 (0.22–1.76) 1.07 (0.53–2.18) 1.31 (0.83–2.05) 1.46 (1.17–1.81) 0.89 (0.75–1.07)
 Listen to radio 1.36 (1.17–1.57) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 1.38 (1.13–1.70) 1.29 (0.93–1.78) 0.98 (0.76–1.26) 1.06 (0.83–1.36) 1.39 (1.14–1.68) 1.16 (1.01–1.34)
 Watch TV 1.39 (1.18–1.63) 1.31 (1.13–1.52) 1.49 (1.13–1.97) 1.69 (1.20–2.37) 1.56 (1.13–2.15) 0.99 (0.79–1.23) 1.28 (1.08–1.52) 1.38 (1.16–1.65)
Wealth index
 Poorest 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Poorer 1.39 (1.18–1.63) 1.36 (1.15–1.60) 2.02 (1.67–2.45) 1.55 (1.13–2.13) 1.22 (0.95–1.56) 0.82 (0.61–1.10) 1.27 (1.01–1.60) 1.06 (0.83–1.34)
 Middle 1.86 (1.58–2.20) 1.78 (1.51–2.11) 2.97 (2.38–3.72) 2.36 (1.63–3.43) 0.95 (0.72–1.25) 0.91 (0.67–1.22) 1.40 (1.11–1.76) 1.19 (0.94–1.51)
 Richer 2.64 (2.19–3.17) 2.62 (2.15–3.20) 7.36 (5.31–10.18) 7.14 (4.08–12.49) 1.06 (0.76–1.48) 0.86 (0.61–1.23) 1.48 (1.16–1.87) 1.10 (0.85–1.43)
 Richest 5.19 (3.96–6.80) 3.71 (2.78–4.94) 13.04 (7.10–23.95) 21.63 (7.30–64.08) 1.67 (1.09–1.60) 1.16 (0.79–1.70) 2.07 (1.59–2.71) 1.14 (0.85–1.54)
Parity
 1–4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  > 4 0.71 (0.61–0.82) 0.93 (0.84–1.04) 0.59 (0.48–0.72) 0.78 (0.58–1.04) 1.01 (0.84–1.21) 1.03 (0.84–1.25) 1.48 (1.27–1.71) 1.06 (0.94–1.21)
Women decision making power
 Low 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Moderate 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.91 (0.74–1.12) 0.96 (0.70–1.31) 0.97 (0.74–1.27) 0.76 (0.55–1.06) 1.26 (1.10–1.44) 0.97 (0.81–1.18)
 High   1.22 (1.01–1.47)   1.47 (1.03–2.10)   1.12 (0.77–1.63)   1.04 (0.85–1.27)
 Currently working 1.10 (0.94–1.28) 1.71 (1.49–1.95) 0.69 (0.55–0.86) 2.52 (1.51–4.22) 1.09 (0.78–1.53) 0.87 (0.71–1.07) 0.97 (0.87–1.08) 1.37 (1.21–1.56)
Sex of household head
 Male 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 Female 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 1.58 (1.18–2.11) 2.04 (1.14–3.67) 1.11 (0.82–1.51) 1.02 (0.75–1.37) 1.13 (1.00–1.26) 1.12 (0.98–1.28)
  1. N.B. Numbers represent odds ratios. Ref = reference category