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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the controls and GDM subjects in index pregnancy and at the follow-up study stratified according to the offspring’s birth weight

From: Future risk of metabolic syndrome in women with a previous LGA delivery stratified by gestational glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study

Offspring’s birth weight AGA (10-90th percentile) LGA (>90th percentile)
Mean ± SD or % Mean ± SD or %
No GDM GDM No GDM GDM
(Controls) (Group 1) (Group 2) (Group 3)
Number of subjects 286 376 48 68
At the index pregnancy
 Age (yrs) 29.5 ± 5.4 31.8 ± 6.0** 30.6 ± 5.0 32.6 ± 6.3**
 Primiparity (%) 53.0 35.0** 34.1* 22.2**
 Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 23.8 ± 3.8 26.4 ± 5.0** 25.7 ± 3.5* 26.7 ± 4.1**
 Family history of diabetes (%) 69.4 81.4** 75.0 80.9
 Prior child’s birth weight > 4000 g (%) 25.4 25.6 43.8* 60.4**
 Prior spontaneous abortion (%) 16.8 19.9 18.8 35.3*
 Prior cesarean section (%) 5.9 9.6 16.7 7.4
 Gestational age (d) 280 ± 11 279 ± 9 279 ± 11 278 ± 8
 Pre-eclampsia (%) 1.4 5.3* 2.1 5.9*
 Birth weight (g) 3595 ± 385 3596 ± 406 4365 ± 424** 4421 ± 370**
 Placental-fetal mass ratio (%) 17.1 ± 3.0 17.5 ± 3.0 20.6 ± 15.8** 17.9 ± 2.5*
 Low Apgar score 1 min < 7 (%) 1.7 5.9* 6.3 4.4
At the follow-up study
 Follow-up time (yrs) 8.5 ± 5.5 5.3 ± 4.3** 7.4 ± 5.4 6.2 ± 4.9*
 Age at follow-up (yrs) 38.4 ± 6.4 37.4 ± 7.2 38.3 ± 5.8 39.1 ± 7.5
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 4.9 28.3 ± 5.7** 27.9 ± 4.8* 29.2 ± 4.9**
 Weight gain during the follow-up time (kg) 5.7 ± 7.6 3.6 ± 7.9 4.3 ± 7.6 5.6 ± 9.3
  1. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, AGA appropriate for gestational age, LGA large for gestational age
  2. All groups compared to controls separately
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. **p < .0001