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Table 1 Characteristics and five air pollutant concentrations of normotensive, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and Mg-preeclampsia groups in 18,835 pregnant women residing in Seoul for 2002–2013 from the Korean National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort

From: Exposure to air pollution during preconceptional and prenatal periods and risk of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study in Seoul, Korea

Characteristics Normotensive group N = 18,565 Gestational hypertension N = 105 Preeclampsia N = 88 Mg-preeclampsia N = 77
Maternal age (years)
 15–24 542 (2.9) 3 (2.8) 4 (4.5) 0 (0)
 25–34 14,564 (78.4) 70 (66.7)a 65 (73.9) 57 (74.0)
 35–44 3459 (18.7) 32 (30.5)a 19 (21.6) 20 (26.0)
Paid employment 5309 (28.6) 32 (30.5) 23 (26.1) 22 (28.6)
Nulliparity 10,551 (56.8) 69 (65.7) 67 (76.1)a 53 (68.8)a
Multiple gestation 268 (1.4) 2 (1.9) 7 (8.0)a 7 (9.1)a, b
Diagnosis of diabetes 297 (1.6) 8 (7.6)a 7 (8.0)a 7 (9.1)a
Household income (%)
 0–40 3509 (18.9) 27 (25.7)a 14 (15.9) 16 (20.8)
 40–70 7607 (41.0) 51 (48.6)a 42 (47.7) 38 (49.3)
 70–100 7449 (40.1) 27 (25.7)a 32 (36.4) 23 (29.9)
Birth season
 Spring 4689 (25.3) 34 (32.4) 22 (25.0) 22 (28.6)
 Summer 4288 (23.1) 22 (21.0) 17 (19.3) 23 (29.9)
 Fall 4916 (26.5) 27 (25.7) 30 (34.1) 18 (23.3)
 Winter 4672 (25.1) 22 (21.0) 19 (21.6) 14 (18.2)
PM10 (μg/m3) for four exposure periods
 12 months to birth 57.78 ± 10.31 54.72 ± 10.40a 58.08 ± 11.57 58.15 ± 9.81b
 6 months 56.23 ± 13.56 54.11 ± 13.75 54.64 ± 14.11 55.84 ± 13.22
 3 months 56.34 ± 16.68 54.15 ± 15.58 52.72 ± 14.80a 56.56 ± 16.99
 1 month 56.68 ± 20.40 53.12 ± 16.58 52.95 ± 17.79 a 53.40 ± 17.64
NO2 (ppb)
 12 months 35.33 ± 4.42 34.10 ± 4.51a 35.07 ± 4.97 36.31 ± 4.38b
 6 months 35.12 ± 5.85 33.99 ± 5.38a 34.51 ± 6.27 36.02 ± 5.84b
 3 months 35.19 ± 7.22 34.30 ± 6.50 34.41 ± 7.09 35.43 ± 7.82
 1 month 35.33 ± 8.47 33.70 ± 7.07a 35.13 ± 7.54 34.62 ± 9.52
CO (100 ppb)
 12 months 76.16 ± 14.45 73.13 ± 13.80a 77.34 ± 16.43 77.65 ± 12.13b
 6 months 75.20 ± 18.93 72.23 ± 17.41 75.42 ± 19.83 77.27 ± 19.58
 3 months 75.28 ± 23.28 72.72 ± 19.94 74.41 ± 22.76 76.03 ± 23.92
 1 month 75.24 ± 25.85 70.69 ± 21.54 73.12 ± 23.17 74.24 ± 29.24
SO2 (ppb)
 12 months 5.25 ± 1.06 5.12 ± 0.90 5.35 ± 1.10 5.18 ± 1.09
 6 months 5.24 ± 1.43 5.11 ± 1.24 5.20 ± 1.47 5.31 ± 1.57
 3 months 5.27 ± 1.74 5.26 ± 1.53 5.21 ± 1.81 5.17 ± 1.77
 1 month 5.29 ± 1.99 5.17 ± 1.56 5.35 ± 1.96 4.97 ± 2.15
O3 (ppm)
 12 months 29.74 ± 4.93 31.33 ± 4.28 29.51 ± 5.11b 29.49 ± 5.21b
 6 months 29.54 ± 8.90 29.87 ± 8.39 29.56 ± 9.67 28.55 ± 9.12
 3 months 29.36 ± 11.40 29.62 ± 10.46 28.20 ± 10.76 30.67 ± 11.98
 1 month 29.54 ± 12.86 30.37 ± 11.92 27.71 ± 11.04 31.70 ± 13.94
  1. PM10 particulate matter, NO2 nitrogen dioxide, CO carbon monoxide, SO2 sulfur dioxide, O3 ozone
  2. Numbers presented in parentheses are percentages. Concentrations of air pollutants are shown as mean ± standard deviation. Pearson’s Chi-squared test with Yates’ continuity correction was used for comparison between pairs of normotensive and three hypertensive disorder groups. Student t test was used for comparison of period-average concentrations of the five air pollutants between pairs of normotensive and three hypertensive disorder groups
  3. aSignificant difference (p < .05) compared with the normotensive group. bSignificant difference (p < .05) compared with the gestational hypertension group. No significant differences between preeclampsia and Mg-preeclampsia groups