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Table 1 Participant characteristics compared between controls and: (i) those with a SGA infant; (ii) women who developed preeclampsia

From: Assessing the sensitivity of placental growth factor and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 at 36 weeks’ gestation to predict small-for-gestational-age infants or late-onset preeclampsia: a prospective nested case-control study

  Controls (n = 207) All SGA (n = 102) P Preeclampsia (n = 39) P
Age (years) 32.1 (4.7) 31.9 (4.2) 0.72 33.1 (4.7) 0.27
Booking Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 25.4 (4.6) 25.4 (5.8) 0.45 27.6 (6.0) 0.02
Smoking status
 Current smoker 17 (8.2%) 8 (7.8%) 0.98 2 (5.1%) 0.80
 Ex-smoker 51 (24.6%) 26 (25.5%)   10 (25.6%)  
 Never 139 (67.1%) 68 (66.7%)   27 (69.2%)  
Gestational diabetes mellitus 38 (18.4%) 18 (17.6%) 1.00 9 (23.1%) 0.51
Parity
 0 118 (57.0%) 58 (56.9%) 0.97 28 (71.8%) 0.20
 1 65 (31.4%) 33 (32.4%)   9 (23.1%)  
  > 1 24 (11.6%) 11 (10.8%)   2 (5.1%)  
Onset of delivery
 Induction of labour 88 (42.5%) 47 (46.1%) 0.08 19 (48.7%) 0.25
 Spontaneous labour 96 (46.4%) 36 (35.3%)   13 (33.3%)  
 No labour 23 (11.1%) 19 (18.6%)   7 (17.9%)  
Mode of delivery
 Normal vaginal delivery 102 (49.3%) 45 (44.1%) 0.64 11 (28.2%) 0.01
 Instrumental delivery 42 (20.3%) 22 (21.6%)   7 (17.9%)  
 Emergency caesarean 42 (20.3%) 20 (19.6%)   17 (43.6%)  
 Elective caesarean 21 (10.1%) 15 (14.7%)   4 (10.3%)  
Birthweight (g) 3547 (444) 2683 (333) < 0.0001 3308 (640) 0.005
Birthweight centile 52.1 (26.1) 5.3 (3.0) < 0.0001 42.8 (30.4) 0.049
Gestational age at delivery (weeks+days) 39+ 5 (1+ 1) 39+ 0 (1+ 4) < 0.0001 39+ 0 (1+ 4) 0.03
  1. Data represented as mean (standard deviation), or number (%). g grams, kg kilograms, m metres, n number, PlGF placental growth factor, sFlt-1 soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, SGA small-for-gestational-age (birthweight <10th centile). Note: some percentages do not sum to 100% due to rounding to one decimal place