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Table 1 Baseline maternal data, for time of early pregnancy (week 8–12), for pregnant women with either pregestational (PDM) type 1 (T1DM), or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) or without diabetes in Kronoberg

From: Obstetric and perinatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by diabetes, and control pregnancies, in Kronoberg, Sweden

Maternal data T1DM T2DM P PDM GDM P Diabetes No Diabetes P
N 37 11   48 97   145 135  
Maternal age (years) 29.8 ± 5 33.5 ± 6 0.06 30.7 ± 6 32 ± 5 0.30 31.3 ± 5 31.1 ± 5 0.73
Pregestational BMI (kg/ m2) 26.7 (17–44) 34 (18–44) 0.005 28.3 (17–44) 29.7 (16–59) 0.11 29.3 ± 7 25.4 ± 4 0.0001
Multiparous 21 (57%) 8 (73%) 0.49 29 (60%) 66 (67%) 0.46 95 (66%) 81 (60%) 0.39
Previous miscarriages 12 (32%) 4 (36%) 1.0 16 (33%) * * * 43 (32%) 0.76a
Previous GDM 2 (5.4%) 7 (64%) 0.0001 9 (19%) * * * * *
Duration of diabetes (years) 15 ± 8.1 6 ± 6.3 0.001 13 ± 8.5 * * * * *
Caucasian 36 (97%) 9 (82%) 0.11 43 (94%) 66 (67%) 0.002 110 (76%) 126 (93%) 0.0001
Smoking 4 (11%) 4 (36%) 0.07 8 (17%) 17 (18%) 1.0 25 (17%) 6 (4.4%) 0.001
Employed 23 (62%) 2 (18%) 0.04 25 (52%) 54 (56%) 0.89 79 (55%) 89 (67%) 0.11
Physical activity ≥1 times/week 28 (76%) 9 (82%) 0.28 31 (65%) 35 (37%) 0.001 66 (46%) 56 (48%) 0.18
Gestational weight gain ≥8 kg 33 (89%) 7 (70%) 0.16 40 (85%) 57 (63%) 0.006 97 (70%) 108 (85%) 0.005
Other endocrine disease (thyroid or adrenalb)     9 (21%)     6 (4.4%) < 0.0001a
  1. T1DM type1 diabetes mellitus, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, PDM pregestational diabetes mellitus, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus
  2. *Information regarding parity, previous miscarriages, previous GDM and duration of diabetes was not available for the GDM group. Figures are either mean ± SD; median (min-max) or n (%). aComparison PDM vs no diabetes. badrenal = primary adrenal insufficiency